Human Amphiregulin (AREG)
Amphiregulin (AR) is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. AR is an autocrine growth factor and functions to regulate cell proliferation and survival through binding the EGF receptor (EGFR). AR promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells and epithelial cells, including keratinocytes and mammary epithelium. Up-regulated at puberty, AR promotes ductal outgrowth and mammary branching. In the liver, AR functions as a mitogen and prevents hepatocyte apoptosis. In a cancer context, AR protects against human adenocarcinoma apoptosis, promotes tumor cell growth, and functions as an oncogenic factor in the Hippo pathway. AR levels are increased in the brain following stress events, such as inflammation, ischemia, and hypoxia.
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